Acronyms and Definitions

CO2: Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas (GHG)

COP: Conference of Parties (under UN Framework Convention of Climate Change)

COP/MOP: The Conference of Parties serving as the Meeting of Parties

AWG-LCA: Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Co-operative Action under the Convention. “The AWG-LCA was established in Bali in 2007 to conduct negotiations on a strengthened international deal on climate change, set to be concluded in Copenhagen in 2009.”

CMP: Conference of the Meeting of Parties (parties include only those nation states involved in the Kyoto Protocol, or KP)

AWG-KP: Ad hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. “The AWG-KP was established by Parties to the Protocol in Montreal in 2005 to consider further commitments of industrialized countries under the Kyoto Protocol for the period beyond 2012, and is set to complete its work in Copenhagen in 2009.”

AOSIS: Alliance of Small Island States (43 vulnerable island nations, most of which are G77 members)

LDCs: Least Developed Countries (49 numbers)

Umbrella Group: While there is no formal list, it is a group of non-EU nations that followed the KP, which adapted from the JUSSCANNZ group.  Generally it involves Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the US.

EU: European Union (27 nations)

Annex I: includes the EU  and 40 other industrialized countries.

G77 and China: Initially 77 members involved in the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), now functions as a negotiating group of over 130 nations. China is not formally part of the group but often argues in line with the group.

Bali Action Plan (BAP): In 2007 the COP13 concluded with the adoption of the Bali Roadmap, which includes the Bali Action Plan.  The BAP outlines four main pillars/building blocks for any further climate negotiations, which include adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer, and financing.

CDM: The Clean Development Mechanism “…allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.” (

LULUCF: Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

UN REDD Programme (or REDD): The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries.  An attempt at reducing deforestation, forest degradation, and associated emission of greenhouse gases.

REDD Plus:  An improved REDD Programme where developing countries will get double the incentives within the carbon market if they conserve forest areas, adopt sustainable environment management programs or plant new trees.

Two-track process:  The BAP outlined a 2-track negotiation process.  There are two parts to it, namely pertaining to the initial immediate committment period and a second dealing with future commitments:

  1. Kyoto Protocol Track: continuing to move forward under the AWG-KP, to agree on developed country emissions targets by 2009, and means to achieve targets.
  2. The Convention (UNFCCC) Track: establishment of Ad How Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action, to build on the discussion initiated under the Dialogue process under the UNFCCC. To focus on four building blocks: mitigation, adaptation, technology, and financing, including mitigation commitments from developed countries, mitigation actions by developing countries, and reducing REDD.

One track process: Consists of the removal of one of the tracks (namely the second one regarding a renewed commitment period) and the drafting of a completely new accord that would replace the KP, thus killing the only legally binding international agreement that exists.

For a more comprehensive list of acronyms under the UNFCCC and its processes and meetings, go to

For a timeline of significant climate events, go to


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